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Using Memoization

Project Goals

This assignment invites you to run and observe one Python program called calculate-fibonacci-lru-cache. Instead of using the Poetry tool for managing dependencies and packaging these programs, which the technical skills advise as a best practice, this program is a script, without any dependencies on other Python packages, that you can run through the Python interpreter. The main reason that you can run the calculate-fibonacci-lru-cache as a script is because it does not have any external package dependencies, instead only using packages that are a part of the Python language. As you continue to practice a different way to run a Python program, this project invites you to explore how to (i) implement memoization for a mathematical computation using a dict, (ii) how to adopt memoization using the functools.lru_cache, and (iii) how to calculate a number in the Fibonacci sequence using Binet's formula.

Project Access

If you are a student enrolled in a Computer Science class at Allegheny College, you can access this assignment by clicking the link provided to you in Discord. Once you click this link it will create a GitHub repository that you can clone to your computer by following the general-purpose instructions in the description of the technical skills. Specifically, you will need to use the git clone command to download the project from GitHub to your computer. Now you are ready to add source code and documentation to the project!

Code Survey

If you change into the source directory of your GitHub repository, you will see a Python program called Your goal for this project is to add the source code required by the TODO markers so that the program produces the output that is given below this paragraph. Specifically, you will need to add an implementation of the following function: def fibonacci(number: int) -> int:. This function should be decorated with the @functools.lru_cache(maxsize=128) annotation so that it leverages a least-recently-used (LRU) cache to store previously computed values, following the paradigm of memoization and aiming to make the computation faster. If you run this program with the command python then it should produce following output. Finally, please observe that the output of this program illustrates that the LRU cache provided by functools.lru_cache keeps track of its size and the number of times a value was and was not found inside of the cache.

Recursive Fibonacci(35) = 9227465
Binet Fibonacci(35)     = 9227465
LRU cache information: CacheInfo(hits=33, misses=36, maxsize=128, currsize=36)
Recursive Fibonacci(70) = 190392490709135
Binet Fibonacci(70)     = 190392490709135
LRU cache information: CacheInfo(hits=69, misses=71, maxsize=128, currsize=71)

It is worth noting that the calculate-fibonacci-lru-cache program also provides a def fibonacci_binet(n: int) -> int, as described in the following source code segment, that can calculate the n-th Fibonacci number with Binet's formula. Even though this function is only accurate --- as implemented in the Python programming language --- for small values of n, it is an efficient approach for ensuring that the other implementations work as expected. Notably, as explained in the article entitled Fibonacci direct calculation formula, the formula that the following equation implements is "mathematically exact, but in practice [...] subject to floating point error". Can you explain why this function will not always compute the correct Fibonacci value?

def fibonacci_binet(n: int) -> int:
    """Calculate a number in the Fibonacci sequence using Binet's formula."""
    square_root_five = math.sqrt(5)
    coefficient = (1 / square_root_five)
    first_term = ((1 + square_root_five) / 2) ** n
    second_term = ((1 - square_root_five) / 2) ** n
    return int(coefficient * (first_term - second_term))

You should also notice that the source directory contains the Python program called calculate-fibonacci-dictionary. You will need to follow the TODO markers in this file to implement a version of the def fibonacci(number: int) -> int: function that creates and uses a dict to explicitly manage a history of the inputs to the function and the outputs that resulted from those inputs. After you are finished implementing this version of the function you should run the program and confirm that it produces the same output as the one that uses the LRU cache. With that said, please note that, while this program should produce the same values for numbers in the Fibonacci sequence, it will not produce any output concerning the LRU cache since it implements the memoization directly by creating a dict and adding to it and then checking it during the recursive computation. After implementing these two methods, which one do you prefer? Why?

Running Checks

Since this project does not use Poetry to manage project dependencies and virtual environments, it does not support the use of commands like poetry run task test. However, you can leverage the relevant instructions in the technical skills to enter into a Docker container and run the command gradle grade to check your work. If gradle grade shows that all checks pass, you will know that you made progress towards correctly implementing and writing about this project's program. You are also encouraged to implement your own test cases for the script to ensure that it is working correctly! This might involve creating different inputs to the function under test, calling the def fibonacci(number: int) -> int function, and then checking to ensure that it returned the correct ordered pair as its output.

Project Reflection

Once you have finished all of the previous technical tasks, you can use a text editor to answer all of the questions in the writing/ file. Since this is a source code survey, you should provide output from running each of the provided Python programs on your own laptop and then explain how the program's source code produced that output. A specific goal for this project is for you to ensure that you can implement and understand two distinct approaches to using memoization to speed up the computation of a mathematical function. Students who want to explore this area further are encouraged to experimentally determine how much slower the Fibonacci computations would be if the LRU cache or the dict-based approach were not used to make the functions faster.

Project Assessment

Since this project is source code survey, it is aligned with the remembering and understanding levels of Bloom's taxonomy. You can learn more about how a proactive programming expert will assess your work by examining the assessment strategy. From the start to the end of this project you may make an unlimited number of reattempts at submitting source code and technical writing that meet the project's specification.

Seeking Assistance

Emerging proactive programmers who have questions about this project are invited to ask them in either the GitHub discussions forum or the Proactive Programmers Discord server. Before you ask your question, please read the advice concerning how to best participate in the Proactive Programmers community. If you find a mistake in this project, please describe it and propose a solution by creating an issue in the GitHub Issue Tracker.

Updated: 2022-05-03   Created: 2021-09-16
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