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Structured Types

Structured Types

Project Goals

This assignment invites you to run and observe two Python programs called compute-tuple-intersection and perform-apply-to-each. Instead of using the Poetry tool for managing dependencies and packaging these programs, which the technical skills advise as a best practice, these programs are scripts, without any dependencies on other Python packages, that you can run through the Python interpreter. As you continue to practice a different way to run a Python program, this project offers you the opportunity to improve your understanding of how to compute the intersection (or elements in common) between two tuples that can contain an arbitrary number of values each of an arbitrary type. You will also learn more about high-order functions as you implement a program that can apply an arbitrary function to the contents of an arbitrary length list of int values.

Project Access

If you are a student enrolled in a Computer Science class at Allegheny College, you can access this assignment by clicking the link provided to you in Discord. Once you click this link it will create a GitHub repository that you can clone to your computer by following the general-purpose instructions in the description of the technical skills. Specifically, you will need to use the git clone command to download the project from GitHub to your computer. Now you are ready to add source code and documentation to the project, enabling you to understand more about tuples and higher-order functions.


If you are an emerging proactive programmer who is not enrolled in a Computer Science class at Allegheny College, you can still work on this assignment! To get started, you should click the "Use this template" button in the structured-types-starter GitHub repository and create your own version of this project's source code. After creating your GitHub repository, you can follow all of the other steps!

Code Survey

If you change into the source/ directory of your GitHub repository, you will see two Python files called and You can run the program by typing python in your terminal window. This program currently has several TODO markers asking you to add source code from the text book to provide an implementation of a function with the following signature: def compute_intersection(tuple_one: Tuple[Any, ...], tuple_two: Tuple[Any, ...]) -> Tuple[Any, ...]. Once you have added the required source code your program should produce the following output. Can you explain why different calls to compute_intersection yield output with the same elements but in a different order?

The first tuple: (1, 'a', 2)
The second tuple: ('b', 2, 'a')

The first intersection tuple: ('a', 2)
The second intersection tuple: (2, 'a')

The second program in the source/ directory is called perform-apply-to-each. Again, this program has several TODO markers that invite you to add source code from the text book to finish the implementation of the function with the signature def apply_to_each(values: List[int], function: Callable) -> None. After you have added the required source code your program should produce the following output. One interesting aspect of the apply_to_each function is that it does not return any values, as indicated by the return type annotation of None. If the function does not return a value, then how can it modify the values input parameter of type List[int] as shown in the output? Finally, you will note that apply_to_each accepts a function parameter of type Callable, making it a higher-order function. What are the benefits of using high-order functions in Python programs? How does apply_to_each use the function parameter?

Values before transformations: [1, -2, 3.33]
Values after applying abs: [1, 2, 3.33]
Values after applying int: [1, 2, 3]
Values after applying squaring: [1, 4, 9]

Running Checks

Since this project does not use Poetry to manage project dependencies and virtual environments, it does not support the use of commands like poetry run task test. However, you can leverage the relevant instructions in the technical skills to run the command gatorgrade --config config/gatorgrade.yml to check your work. If your work meets the baseline requirements and adheres to the best practices that proactive programmers adopt you will see that all the checks pass when you run gatorgrade. You can study the config/gatorgrade.yml file in your repository to learn how GatorGrade runs GatorGrader to automatically check your program and technical writing.


Did you know that GatorGrade and GatorGrader are open-source Python programs implemented by many proactive programmers? If you finish this source code survey and have extra time, please brainstorm some new features that you think these two tools should have, explain your idea by raising an issue in the relevant project's GitHub repository, and take the first step towards implementing and testing your idea. If the maintainers of these tools accept your new feature then you will have helped to improve the experience of other people who use GatorGrade and GatorGrader!

Project Reflection

Once you have finished all of the previous technical tasks, you can use a text editor to answer all of the questions in the writing/ file. Since this is a source code survey, you should provide output from running each of the provided Python programs on your own laptop and then explain how the program's source code produced that output. A specific goal for this project is to ensure that you can explain each component of a function's type signature, including details about its inputs and outputs.

Project Assessment

Since this project is source code survey, it is aligned with the remembering and understanding levels of Bloom's taxonomy. You can learn more about how a proactive programming expert will assess your work by examining the assessment strategy. From the start to the end of this project you may make an unlimited number of reattempts at submitting source code and technical writing that meet the project's specification.

Seeking Assistance

Emerging proactive programmers who have questions about this project are invited to ask them in either the GitHub discussions forum or the Proactive Programmers Discord server. Before you ask your question, please read the advice concerning how to best participate in the Proactive Programmers community. If you find a mistake in this project, please describe it and propose a solution by creating an issue in the GitHub Issue Tracker.

Updated: 2023-03-17   Created: 2021-09-16
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