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Primality Testing

Primality Testing

Project Goals

This assignment invites you to implement a program that features multiple algorithms for performing primality testing. You will implement two algorithms that conduct a search to determine whether or not the number input to the program is prime. The exhaustive search algorithm will examine all possible elements of a search space while, in contrast, the efficient one will use extra conditional logic to restrict the search space. In addition to adding source code the provided Python files, you will conduct an experiment to determine which algorithm is the fastest and estimate by how much it is faster. As you enhance your technical skills and explore the experimental evaluation of algorithms, you will continue to program with tools such as VS Code and a terminal window and the Python programming language and the Poetry package manager.

Project Access

If you are a student enrolled in a Computer Science class at Allegheny College, you can access this assignment by clicking the link provided to you in Discord. Once you click this link it will create a GitHub repository that you can clone to your computer by following the general-purpose instructions in the description of the technical skills. Specifically, you will need to use the git clone command to download the project from GitHub to your computer. Now you are ready to add source code and documentation to the project!

Expected Output

This project invites you to implement a number squaring program called primality. The program accepts as input a number, like 49979687, a description of an approach (that can either be efficient or exhaustive), and a boolean flag to indicate whether or not the program should profile its execution. When primality is run in exhaustive mode it checks all integer values in range(2, number) if number is the integer value subject to primality testing. After you finish the correct implementation of all the program's features, running it with the command poetry run primality --number 49979687 --approach efficient --profile will produce output like the following:

😄 Attempting to determine if 49979687 is a prime number!

✨ What divisors were found? 1, 49979687 Was this a prime number? Yes

🔬 Here's profiling data from performing primality testing on 49979687!

  _     ._   __/__   _ _  _  _ _/_   Recorded: 22:10:56  Samples:  1
 /_//_/// /_\ / //_// / //_'/ //     Duration: 0.870     CPU time: 0.869
/   _/                      v4.0.3

Program: primality --number 49979687 --approach efficient --profile

0.870 primality  primality/
└─ 0.870 primality_test_efficient  primality/

Did you notice that this program produces profiling data about how long it took to run the primality program in efficient mode with the input 49979687? This is because of the fact that it uses the Pyinstrument program to collect execution traces and efficiency information about the program. For this run of the program, it took about 0.870 seconds to determine that 49979687 was a prime number. Is that fast or not? Well, let's run the primality program in exhaustive mode and measure by how much it is slower! Specifically, running the command poetry run primality --number 49979687 --approach exhaustive --profile produces the following output:

😄 Attempting to determine if 49979687 is a prime number!

✨ What divisors were found? 1, 49979687 Was this a prime number? Yes

🔬 Here's profiling data from performing primality testing on 49979687!

  _     ._   __/__   _ _  _  _ _/_   Recorded: 22:34:38  Samples:  1
 /_//_/// /_\ / //_// / //_'/ //     Duration: 1.739     CPU time: 1.738
/   _/                      v4.0.3

Program: primality --number 49979687 --approach exhaustive --profile

1.738 primality  primality/
└─ 1.738 primality_test_exhaustive  primality/

If exhaustive mode of primality takes 1.738 and efficient mode only takes 0.870, how much faster is efficient mode compared to exhaustive? If \(T_f\) denotes the execution time of efficient mode and \(T_x\) denotes the execution time of exhausitve mode, then the following equation defines \(T_{\Delta}\), or the percentage change in the execution time when running primality in efficient mode instead of exhaustive.

\[ T_{\Delta} = \frac{T_x - T_f}{T_x} \times 100 \]

Using this equation with the timing values of \(T_x = 1.738\) and \(T_f = 0.87\) from Pyinstrument shows that efficient mode is \((1.738 - 0.87) / 1.738 * 100 = 49.9427\) percent faster than exhaustive mode. When you check the source code in the GitHub repository for this project you will see why! Unlike exhaustive mode, the efficient mode of primality does not check for even divisors of number bigger than two, instead only determining if number is divisible by any odd number in range(3, x, 2). In retrospect, it makes sense that efficient is about \(50\) percent faster than exhaustive because, by not checking the even numbers, it does not do half of exhaustive's work.

It is worth noting that you do not have to run primality in the profile mode that uses Pyinstrument. For instance, running the program with poetry run primality --number 49979687 --approach exhaustive would run the program in exhaustive mode and perform the same computation without collecting the performance data. You can display primality's help menu and learn more about the features it should support by typing poetry run primality --help to display the following:

Usage: primality [OPTIONS]

  Use iteration to perform primality testing on a number.

  --number INTEGER                [default: 5]
  --profile / --no-profile        [default: False]
  --approach [exhaustive|efficient]
                                  [default: efficient]
  --install-completion            Install completion for the current

  --show-completion               Show completion for the current shell,
                                  to copy it or customize the

  --help                          Show this message and exit.

Please note that the provided source code does not contain all of the functionality to produce the output displayed in this section. As explain in the next section, you are invited to add the features needed to ensure that primality produces the expected output!


Don't forget that if you want to run the primality program you must use your terminal window to first go into the GitHub repository containing this project and then go into the primality directory that contains the project's source code. Finally, remember that before running the program you must run poetry install to add its dependencies, such as Pyinstrument, Pytest, and Rich.

Adding Functionality

If you study the file primality/primality/ you will see that it has many TODO markers that designate the parts of the program that you need to implement before primality will produce correct output. If you run the provided test suite with the command poetry run task test you will see that it produces a message suggesting that there is a syntax error in the program. Along with creating instances of the Typer and Profiler classes, you will need to resolve all of the syntax errors so that you can run primality and its test suite. You must also implement all of these functions:

  • def human_readable_boolean(answer: bool) -> str
  • def pretty_print_list(values: Iterable[int]) -> str
  • def primality_test_exhaustive(x: int) -> Tuple[bool, List[int]]
  • def primality_test_efficient(x: int) -> Tuple[bool, List[int]]

The following source code illustrates how to use Pyinstrument to collect the timing information for the execution of the efficient approach for primality testing, as implemented in the function primality_test_efficient. First, line 1 creates an empty primality_tuple and lines 2 and 3 confirm that the person using the program requested to profile the execution of the efficient approach. Using Pyinstrument, line 4 starts the profiler and line 6 stops it, with line 5 making the call to the primality_test_efficient function. When the person running primality did not use --profile, then line 8 calls primality_test_efficient without using Pyinstrument.

primality_tuple: Tuple[bool, List[int]]
if approach.value == PrimalityTestingApproach.efficient:
    if profile:
        primality_tuple = primality_test_efficient(number)
        primality_tuple = primality_test_efficient(number)

Running Checks

If you study the source code in the pyproject.toml file you will see that it includes the following section that specifies different executable tasks like lint. If you are in the primality directory that contains the pyproject.toml file and the poetry.lock file, the tasks in this section make it easy to run commands like poetry run task lint to automatically run all of the linters designed to check the Python source code in your program and its test suite. You can also use the command poetry run task black to confirm that your source code adheres to the industry-standard format defined by the black tool. If it does not adhere to the standard then you can run the command poetry run black primality tests and it will automatically reformat the source code.

Along with running tasks like poetry run task lint, you can leverage the relevant instructions in the technical skills to run the command gatorgrade --config config/gatorgrade.yml to check your work. If your work meets the baseline requirements and adheres to the best practices that proactive programmers adopt you will see that all the checks pass when you run gatorgrade. You can study the config/gatorgrade.yml file in your repository to learn how the GatorGrade program runs GatorGrader to automatically check your program and technical writing. If your program has all of the anticipated functionality, you can run the command poetry run task test and see that the test suite produces output like the following. Can you add comments to to show that you understand how the tests work?

collected 7 items

tests/ .......

Don't forget that this project also comes with other tasks that you can run once you have used Poetry to install all of the dependencies. For instance, if you find that your Python source code is not in adherence with the required formatting rules, you can run poetry run task black to automatically return it to the correct format! You can also run commands like poetry run task mypy to check the program's use of data types and poetry run task pylint to ensure that your source code adheres to other established programming conventions. You can use these built-in tasks to understand and improve your code's quality! If you want to run all of the built-in checking tasks you can type poetry run task all in the directory that contains the pyproject.toml file.


Don't forget that when you commit source code or technical writing to your GitHub repository for this project, it will trigger the run of a GitHub Actions workflow. If you are a student at Allegheny College, then running this workflow consumes build minutes for the course's organization! As such, you should only commit to your repository once you have made substantive changes to your project and you are ready to confirm its correctness. Before you commit to your GitHub repository, you can still run checks on your own computer by using Poetry and GatorGrader.

Project Reflection

Once you have finished both of the previous technical tasks, you can use a text editor to answer all of the questions in the writing/ file. For instance, you should provide the output of the Python program in a fenced code block, explain the meaning of the Python source code segments that you implemented, and answer all of the other questions about your experiences in completing this project. A specific goal of the reflection for this project is to evaluate the efficiency of the two different modes (i.e., exhaustive and efficient) of the primality program.

Project Assessment

Since this project is an engineering effort, it is aligned with the evaluating and creating levels of Bloom's taxonomy. You can learn more about how a proactive programming expert will assess your work by examining the assessment strategy. From the start to the end of this project you may make an unlimited number of reattempts at submitting source code and technical writing that meet all aspects of the project's specification.


Before you finish all of the required deliverables required by this project is worth pausing to remember that the instructor will give advance feedback to any learner who requests it through GitHub and Discord at least 24 hours before the project's due date! Seriously, did you catch that? This policy means that you can have a thorough understanding of ways to improve your project before its final assessment! To learn more about this opportunity, please read the assessment strategy for this site.

Seeking Assistance

Emerging proactive programmers who have questions about this project are invited to ask them in either the GitHub discussions forum or the Proactive Programmers Discord server. Before you ask your question, please read the advice concerning how to best participate in the Proactive Programmers community. If you find a mistake in this project, please describe it and propose a solution by creating an issue in the GitHub Issue Tracker.

Updated: 2023-02-10   Created: 2021-08-12
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